Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be a complex disease that is difficult to treat. Although overall survival has increased in younger patients, 5-year survival continues to be low for older patients due to low performance status and comorbidities. This educational activity provides an overview of the cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in AML and outlines how analysis of these abnormalities is utilized to develop new targeted therapies, particularly for older patients and those with secondary AML. The efficacy and safety of newly-approved and emerging targeted therapies is also reviewed in comparison with current AML standards of care and an assessment is provided regarding how these emerging agents may be integrated in the future. Further, this activity also highlights how hematologists and oncologists collaborate with hematopathologists to analyze the cytogenetics and molecular abnormalities in patients with AML to provide optimal treatment.